法律英语翻译

法律翻译应注意的十二个问题(二)

2022-9-16 11:51:04 SEO 42

  法律翻译应注意的十二个问题(二)

  2.把英语法律条文翻译为汉语时,现在的通常做法是每个同义词都译出来,努力找到不同的汉语词(至于汉语同义词之间的区别是否相当于英语同义词之间的区别,则另当别论)。例:

  The WTO Agreement to which China accedes shall be the WTO Agreement as rectified, amended, or otherwise modified by such legal instruments as may have entered into force before the date of accession. (Protocol on the Accession of the People’s Republic of China)

  【译文】中国加入的《WTO协议》应为经在加入之日前已生效的法律文件所更正、

  修正或修改的《WTO协议》(《中华人民共和国加入议定书》官方译文)

  【解析】这里的“rectified, amended, or otherwise modified”意思相同,都写出来是为了表示穷尽,正好翻译中可以找到三个汉语同义词。但如果找不到同样数目的同义词,或者译文并不是十分重要,为了避免读者作无谓的猜测区分,笔者认为可以综合起来简单地译为一个词“修订”;如果是法律文件,提请律师注意所作调整。

  五、You和We

  1.简明英语写作手册中都提倡使用you和we拉近政府机构(规则制订者)和群众之间的距离。一般用you表示读者,用we表示规章的制订者。例:

  A:Copies of tax returns must be provided.

  B:You must provide copies of your tax retums.

  2.用you翻译避免了he or she,使译文更简洁。在口译当中使用you也往往可以起到意想不到的效果。

  六、列举方法

  清单式列举可以使逻辑清楚,避免and和or引起的歧义。

  下面对这条规则的英语说明本身就体现了这一规则的用法:

  When you list, use the following rules:

  Use parallel structure.

  List each item so that it makes a complete thought when read with the introductory text.

  If the introductory language for the list is a complete sentence—

  End the introduction with a colon; and

  Make each item in the list a separate sentence.

  If the introductory language for the list is an incomplete sentence—

  End the introduction with a dash;

  End each item in the list except the last item with a semicolon;

  After the semicolon in the next-to-last item in the list, write “and” or “or” as appropriate; and

  End the last item in the list with a period.

  七、用肯定句

  能用肯定表示的,不用否定,尤其不用双重否定。例:

  1.A:Persons other than the primary beneficiary may not receive these dividends.

  B:Only the primary beneficiary may receive these dividends.

  2.A:The Governor may not appoint persons other than those qualified by the Personnel Management Agency.

  B:The Governor must only appoint persons qualified by the Personnel Management Agency.

  八、用现在时

  1.用现在时简单明了。例:

  (1) A:These sections describe types of information that would satisfy the application requirements of Circular A-110 as it would apply for this grant program.

  B:These sections tell you how to meet the requirements of Circular A-110 for this grant program.

  (2) A:A person who violates this part shall be guilty…

  B:A person who violates this part is guilty…

  (3) A:If the director shall have been notified…

  B:If the director is notified…

  2.翻译时,用现在时态的概念可以推而广之,变为用简单时态的概念。

  九、修饰语的位置

  修饰语位置不对可能导致歧义。例:

  A:John saw Jane driving down the street.

  B:John, while driving down the street, saw Jane.

  除非意思是:John saw Jane, who was driving down the street.

  十、介词短语连用

  两个以上介词短语连用经常造成歧义。例:

  A:Each subscriber to a newspaper in Washington, DC…

  B:Each newspaper subscriber who lives in Washington, DC…

  除非意思是:Each subscriber to a newspaper published in Washington, DC…

  十一、用单数名词

  只要意思允许,用单数名词,不用复数名词。因为用复数无法区分一条规定适用于集体中的每一个,还是集体作为一个整体适用。例:

  A:The guard shall issue security badges to employees who work in Building D and Building E.

  B:The guard shall issue a security badge to each employee who works in Building D and each employee who works in Building E.

  除非意思是:C:The guard shall issue a security badge to each employee who works in both Building D and Building E. (There are other possible meanings).

  十二、避免名词串

  尽量避免名词修饰名词。多用介词澄清各词之间的关系。例:

  地下矿工安全保护程序开发

  【原译】Underground mine worker safety protection procedures development.

  【改译】Developing procedures to protect the safety of workers in underground mines.

  本文整理自《非文学翻译与实践》


法律翻译应注意的十二个问题(二)

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