法律英语动态

法律文本固定结构和词组的翻译(一)

2022-8-1 15:03:36 admin 57

法律文本中的语言具有用词准确、规范、结构严谨等特点。法律文本的汉译英,除了要研究源语的语言特点外,关键还应理解原文,读懂原文。

 

法律文本的权威性、精确性不仅体现在选词、用词上,同样也体现在固定结构的使用上。法律文本固有的程式化语言结构在一定程度上也反映了其多用固定结构的特征。

 

汉译英的过程中,要熟悉英语立法文本中的常用词汇搭配情况,避免误用短语、词组的情况,否则会对立法文本的权威性精确性产生影响。下面整理了部分法律文本固定结构和词组,以供参考。

 

1. 表达“禁止性”的程式化语言结构

 

禁止性规范是指禁止法律关系主体为某种行为的法律规范。汉语的表达通常是“禁止”、“不得”、“不许”、“不准”、“不能”等。

 

译成英语则通常用下列几个词组:

 

be prohibited

be not allowed/permitted

shall/may/must/cannot +V.

 

例如:

 

1) 禁止对任何民族的歧视和压迫。

 

Discrimination against and oppression of any nationality are prohibited.

 

2任何人不得在同一项地产上同时既是出租人又是承租人

 

A person cannot at the same time be both landlord and tenant of the same premises.

 

2) 如未在证券交易管理委员会登记,任何证券不得上市或向大众出售

 

No security may be offered or sold to the public unless it is registered with the SEC.

 

4)国家保护野生动物及其生存环境,禁止任何单位和个人非法猎捕或者破坏。

 

The state shall protect wildlife and the environment for its survival, and shall prohibit the illegal hunting, catching or destruction of wildlife by any unit or individual.

 

5)被认为(入境后)可能危害中国的国家安全、社会秩序的外国人不准入境。

 

Aliens who are considered a possible threat to China's state security and public order shall not be permitted to enter into China.

 

6)国家财产神圣不可侵犯,禁止任何组织或个人侵占、哄抢、私分、截留或破坏。

 

State property is sacred and inviolable, and no organization or individual shall be allowed to seize, encroach upon, privately divide, retain or destroy it.

 

7没收财产是没收犯罪分子个人所有财产的一部分或者全部。在判处没收财产的时候,不得没收属于犯罪分子家属所有或者应有的财产。(刑法第五十九条)

 

Confiscation of property refers to the confiscation of part of all of the property personally owned by a criminal. When a sentence of confiscation of property is imposed, property that the criminal's family member owns or should own shall not be subject to confiscation.

 

8判决宣告以前一人犯数罪的,除判处死刑和无期徒刑的以外,当在总和刑期以下、数刑中最高刑期以上,酌情决定执行的刑期;但是管制最高不能超过三年,拘役最高不能超过一年,有期徒刑最高不能超过二十年。

 

For a criminal who commits several crimes before a judgment is pronounced, unless he is sentenced to death or life imprisonment, his term of punishment shall be decided in such a way that it may not exceed the total of the terms for all the crimes and must be longer than the maximum term for any one of the crimes, depending on the circumstances of each case. However, the term of public surveillance may not exceed three years, the term of criminal detention may not exceed one year, and fixed-term imprisonment may not exceed twenty years.

 

9禁止证券交易内幕信息的知情人和非法获取内幕信息的人利用内幕信息从事证券交易活动。

 

Persons possessing inside information relating to securities trading and persons obtaining such information unlawfully are prohibited from making use of such inside information in securities trading activities.

 

10禁止任何人利用任何手段扰乱社会秩序。扰乱社会秩序情节严重,致使工作、生产、营业和教学、科研无法进行,国家和社会遭受严重损失的,对首要分子处五年以下有期徒刑、拘役、管制或者剥夺政治权利。

 

It shall be prohibited for anyone to disturb public order by any means. If the circumstances of the public disturbance are so serious that work, production, business, education or scientific research cannot be conducted and the state and society suffer serious losses, the ringleaders shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not more than five years, criminal detention, public surveillance or deprivation of political rights.

 

2. 表达“义务性”的程式化语言结构

 

义务性规范,是指规定人们必须依法做出一定行为的法律规范。

 

汉语表达方式为“有……义务,必须等。英语的程式化语言结构有:

 

must/shall+v.

fulfill one's obligation to +v.

have/owe the duty to + v.

It is the duty of/ to +V.

 

 

:

 

1) 公司必须保护职工的合法权益,加强劳动保护,实现安全生产。

 

Companies must protect the lawful rights of their staff and workers and strengthen labor protection so as to achieve safety in production.

 

2) 为使可预见的伤害……可以避免,卖方向买方负有在其生产装、销售中适当注意义务。

 

The seller owes a duty to the buyer to use due care in production, packing, and sale of his or her goods so that foreseeable harm, ... will be avoided.

 

3) 父母有抚养未成年子女的义务,成年子女有赡养抚助父母的义务。

 

Parents have the duty to rear and educate their children who are minors, and children who have come of age have the duty to support and assist their parents.

 

4) 夫妻双方有实现计划生育的义务。

 

Both husband and wife fulfill their obligation to practice family planning.

 

5) 中华人民共和国公民有维护国家统一和全国各民族团结的义务

 

It is the duty of citizens of the People's Republic of China to safeguard the unification of the country and the unity of all its nationalities.


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