97. It has been suggested that long-term prisoners, on release from jail, be given a
reasonable state pension to reduce the likelihood of their resorting to crime. Most people
instinctively reject the suggestion as they feel it would be like rewarding criminal activity.
The supporters of the prisoners’ pension scheme have criticized those who reject this
possibility, by claiming that for the critics...
Which of the following is the most logical completion of the sentence above?
A. emotion is more important than justice.
B. crime prevention is not an important issue.
C. the law should not be concerned with what happens after jail.
D. punishment for criminal is more important than crime prevention.
98. An undergraduate degree is necessary for appointment to the executive board. Further,
no one with a felony conviction can be appointed to the board. Thus, Murray, an accountant
with both a bachelor's and a master’s degree, cannot be accepted for the position of Executive
Administrator, since he has a felony conviction.
The argument's conclusion follows logically if which one of the following is assumed?
A. Anyone with a master's degree and without a felony conviction is eligible for
appointment to the executive board.
B. Only candidates eligible for appointment to the executive board can be accepted for
the position of Executive Administrator.
C. An undergraduate degree is not necessary for acceptance for the position of
D. If Murray did not have a felony conviction, he would be accepted for the position of
99. Driver: My friends say I will one day have an accident because I drive my sports car
recklessly. But I have done some research, and apparently minivans and larger sedans have
very low accident rates compared to sports cars. So trading my sports car in for a minivan
would lower my risk of having an accident.
The reasoning in the driver's argument is most vulnerable to criticism on the grounds that
A. relies on a sample that is too narrow.
B. misinterprets evidence that a result is likely as evidence that the result is certain.
C. mistakes a condition sufficient for bringing about a result for a condition necessary
for doing so.
D. infers a cause from a mere correlation.
100. Some anthropologists argue that the human species could not have survived
prehistoric times if the species had not evolved the ability to cope with diverse natural
environments. However, there is considerable evidence that Australopithecus afarensis, a
prehistoric species related to early humans, also thrived in a diverse array of environments, but
became extinct. Hence, the anthropologists' claim is false.
The reasoning in the argument is most vulnerable to criticism on the grounds that the
A. takes for granted that if one species had a characteristic that happened to enable it to
survive certain conditions, at least one related extinct species must have had the
B. generalizes, from the fact that one species with a certain characteristic survived
certain conditions, that all related species with the same characteristic must have
survived exactly the same conditions.
C. confuses a condition's being required for a given result to occur in one case with the
condition's being sufficient for such a result to occur in a similar case.
D. fails to consider the possibility that, even if a condition caused a result to occur in
one case, it was not necessary to cause the result to occur in a similar case.