法律英语动态

英美法律基础课小课堂——证据法1

2022-1-13 15:09:04 admin 126


英美法追求程序公正的价值取向,奉行当事人主义的诉讼结构模式,实行陪审团制度,由陪审团裁决证据。本篇将带大家了解英美法的一些证据规则。

 

什么是证据法?

Evidence law is the branch of law concerned with the rules and methods by which evidence is admitted and used in a legal trial. These rules set out what type of evidence can be admitted for consideration by a judge or jury in a trial. Evidence law also concerns the type of objections that can be raised to certain evidence being admitted, such as hearsay, illegally-obtained evidence, or a privilege that prevents the evidence in question from being admissible at trial.

证据规则是指借以调整特定事实材料和信息资料作为诉讼证据并加以提出调整、收集和运用原则和规范也就是在诉讼证明过程中关于证据取舍和运用的法律规则。

 

相关性规则

The concept of relevance plays a pivotal role in legal fact-finding. First, without exception, nothing which is not relevant may be received as evidence by the court and secondly, subject to many exceptions and qualifications, whatever is relevant is receivable as evidence by the court. Evidence may be adduced in legal proceedings to prove a fact only if the fact is relevant. Relevance is a relational concept. No fact is relevant in itself; it is relevant only in relation to another fact. The term “probable” is often used to describe this relation.

证据的相关性规则在英美证据规则体系,特别是刑事证据规则体系中体现得较为完整也较为突出,它以原则上排除不相关证据并辅之以众多例外为主要表现形式。

 

鉴证规则

Authentication is the process by which a party may validate the identity and accuracy of the documentary evidence for admission by the court into the proceeding. A self-authenticating document is any document that can be admitted into evidence at a trial without proof being submitted to support that it is what it appears to be. Example: documents acknowledge by a certified notary public.

鉴证规则是指用于证明案件事实的必须至少在形式上或表面上是真实的,完全虚假或者伪造的证据不得被采纳。这实际上是指对证据的真实性进行审查,只有在形式上属实的证据才能被采纳,可以称为形式上的真实性原则。鉴证包括三个方面的内容:记录的内容、记录的来源以及记录的完整性。

 

传闻证据规则

Hearsay evidence is evidence that is secondhand, out-of-court testimony that is presented to prove the truth of something. One example is testimony about a statement that somebody who is not before the court made. There is a general rule against admitting hearsay evidence, but there are many exceptions to the rule against hearsay evidence.

传闻证据规则是英美证据法中最重要的证据规则之一,它原则上要求在审判中排除传闻证据,证人证言须在法庭上接受检验 ,只有在符合法定的例外情形时才允许采纳庭外陈述。

 

非法证据排除规则

Prevents the government from using most evidence gathered in violation of the United States Constitution. The decision in Mapp v. Ohio established that the exclusionary rule applies to evidence gained from an unreasonable search or seizure in violation of the Fourth Amendment.

在刑事诉讼中,侦查机关及其工作人员使用非法手段取得的证据不得在刑事审判中被采纳。

 

最佳证据规则

As to admitting into evidence a writing, recording, photograph or other document, the best evidence rule requires the original. An exception may apply when the original is not available through no fault of its proponent.

现代英美法系国家中关于文字材料可采性的一项重要证据规则。其基本精神是以文件内容而不是以文件本身作为证据的一方当事人,必须提出文件内容的原始证据。

 

交叉询问规则

The examination of a witness by opposing counsel after the witness has completed direct examination. Counsel uses leading questions to test, discredit, probe, defeat or impeach the witness' testimony that she gave on direct.

交叉询问是英美法系庭审时对证人的一种询问方法,即首先由提出证据的一方对本方人进行主询问”,仅限于与案件关联的事实。当事人不得以反询问或其他方式质疑或攻击自己的证人,并不得诱导性询问。然后由对方进行可诱导性的“交叉询问”,目的在于揭示证人的偏见和不可信性。

 

推定

A rule of law which requires the assumption of a fact from another fact or set of established facts. In some cases, the presumption may be rebutted if certain other facts are proved in response.

根据某一事实的存在而作出的与之相关的另一事实存在(或不存在)的假定,这种推定与证据问题息息相关,它可以免除主张推定事实的一方当事人的举证责任,并把证明不存在推定事实的证明责任转移于对方当事人。

 

补强证据规则

Evidence that tends to support a proposition that is already supported by some initial evidence, therefore confirming the proposition.

指某一证据由于其存在证据资格或证据形式上的某些瑕疵或弱点,不能单独作为认定案件事实的依据,必须依靠其他证据的佐证,借以证明其真实性或补强其证据价值,才能作为定案的依据。

 

来源:https://barprephero.com/learn/evidence-law/ 

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/evidence-legal/#ConEviWhaDoeEviRefLaw 

https://wenku.baidu.com/view/f7d05e6fbf23482fb4daa58da0116c175f0e1e6c.html 

 


标签:

评论列表

法平客服微信
LEC考试QQ交流群